Digital Signal Processing

Convolution in Discrete-Time – Matlab

The output y[n] of a particular LTI-system can be obtained by:

The previous equation is called Convolution between discrete-time signals x[n] and h[n].

By convention, the convolution between x[n] and h[n] is expressed as follows:

Example 1. 

Let the following rectangular pulse x[n] be an input to an LTI system with impulse response h[n]:

Determine the output y[n] of the system.

Solution:

In Elementary sequences we have designed a function stepseq for plotting the unit step function in discrete time, or any combination as example 1. Next Script allows plotting x[n].

n=[0:40];
x=stepseq(0,0,40)-stepseq(10,0,40);
stem(n,x)
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘x[n]’)

Figure 1. Input sequence x[n], example 1.

Next Script allows plotting h[n].

n=[0:40];
h=(0.9).^n;
stem(n,h)
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘h[n]’)

Figure 2. Impulse response h[n] for system in example 1.

Now, we use conv Matlab function to determine y[n]:

y=conv(x,h);
n=[0:80];
stem(n,y);
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘y[n]’)

Figure 3. Output sequence y[n]=x[n]*h[n] for example 1.

Another approach is by using the filter function (see Solving discrete-time differential equations):

n=[0:40];
x=stepseq(0,0,40)-stepseq(10,0,40);
h=(0.9).^n;
y=filter(h,1,x);
stem(n,y)
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘y[n]’)
grid

What yields:

Figure 4. Output sequence y[n]=x[n]*h[n] for example 1.

There is a difference in the outputs of these two implementations that should be noted. As you can see in Figure 3, the output sequence from conv(x,h) function has a longer length than both x[n] and h[n] sequences. On the other hand, the output sequence from the filter(h,1,x) function in Figure 4 has exactly the same length as the input x[n] sequence. In practice, the use of the filter function is encouraged.

Watch out: The filter function can be used to compute the convolution indirectly. That was possible because of the impulse response in example 1 was a one-side exponential sequence for wich we could determine a difference equation representation. Not all infinite-lenght impulse responses can be converted into difference equations.

Analytical Convolution

We can do the convolution of x[n] and h[n] Analytically:

Applying the given equation for convolution:

We now use an expression for the sum of any finite number of terms of a geometric series (The Geometric Series in DSP), and that is given by:

So, we can express equation (1) as follows:

Equation (3) is almost a geometric series sum as equation (2) except that the terms u(n-k) takes different values depending on n and k. There are three possible conditions under u(n-k) which can be evaluated:

Case 1. n<0. Then u(n-k)=0 for 0 k 9. In consequence:

Case 2. In this case the nonzero values of and do not overlap. So, for 0n<9 then u(n-k)=1 for 0kn. In consequence:

Applying formula of equation (2):

Case 3. In this case the impulse response h[n] partially overlap the input x[n]. So, for 9 n. Then u(n-k)=1 for 0 k 9. In consequence:

In this last case h[n] completely overlaps the input x[n].

Graphical method

We can also use a graphical method as in the following example.

Example 2

The input signal x[n] to an LTI system with impulse response h[n]:

Determine graphically y[n] through:

La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es null-63.png

Solution:

Sequences x[k] and h[n-k], and the convolution of both signals can be seen as follows:

We can also use convolution properties as follows.

Example 3
Convolution Properties.

Other interesting properties are:

With an input x[n], the response of a LTI system y[n] is:

The impulse response h[n] of the system is:

Determine x[n]. Choose the right answer from:

Solution:

Considering:

We express the impulse response in terms of displaced Dirac deltas:

If we select:

Then:

So right answer is letter a). Demonstration: Using the previous equation, Let´s plot y[n] in Matlab.

The impulse response h[n] and option a) for input x[n] can be plotting in Matlab using:

n=[-3:10];
h=stepseq(0,-3,10)-stepseq(4,-3,10);
stem(n,h)
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘h[n]’)

Figure 5. Impulse response h[n] for system in example 3.

n=[-3:10];
x=stepseq(-3,-3,10)-stepseq(1,-3,10);
stem(n,x)
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘x[n]’)

Figure 6. Input signal x[n] for system in example 3.

Now, y[n] can be plotting by using:

n=[-3:10];
h=stepseq(0,-3,10)-stepseq(4,-3,10);
x=stepseq(-3,-3,10)-stepseq(1,-3,10);
x1=stepseq(-2,-3,10)-stepseq(2,-3,10);
x2=stepseq(-1,-3,10)-stepseq(3,-3,10);
x3=stepseq(0,-3,10)-stepseq(4,-3,10);
y=x+x1+x2+x3;
stem(n,y)

Figure 7. Output sequence y[n] for example 3.

Which we would also have been able to get by using:

La imagen tiene un atributo ALT vacío; su nombre de archivo es null-64.png

n=[-3:10];;
h=stepseq(0,-3,10)-stepseq(4,-3,10);
x=stepseq(-3,-3,10)-stepseq(1,-3,10);
y=conv(h,x);
n=[0:26];
stem(n,y)
xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘y[n]’)

Figure 8. Output sequence y[n]=x[n]*h[n] for example 3.

NEXT:

Source:

  • Digital Signal Processing Using Matlab, 3erd ed
  • Fundamentos_de_Señales_y_Sistemas_usando la Web y Matlab
  • Oppenheim – Señales y Sistemas
  • Análisis de Sistemas Lineales Asistido con Scilab – Un Enfoque desde la Ingeniería Eléctrica.

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Prof. Larry Francis Obando – Technical Specialist – Educational Content Writer

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